Corn / Potato Starch

Starch is quantitatively the most dominant storage carbohydrate on Earth & is synthesized mostly in plants like corn, potatoes, sweet potato etc. & some cyanobacteria.

Starch consists of amylose & amylopectin having α-1, 4- & α-1, 6-linked glucose units.

The starch molecule accumulates as water-insoluble particles, i.e., the starch granules in the cell of the plants. However, most other species produce water-soluble glycogen as a storage carbohydrate. Both polymers, starch & glycogen are similar in biological function and chemical composition, consisting of glucose units that are linked by α-1, 4 & α-1, 6 glycosidic bonds.

The physical parameters of starch strongly differ from those of glycogen and are responsible for the high value of starch in various applications.

Corn / Potato Starch

Corn & Potato with Starch Powder

Starch is a versatile biomaterial of special interest due to its abundance, cheapness, non-toxic properties, and biodegradability for various food & non-food industries.

It is widely used in the preparation of numerous dairy & bakery goods, soups, and sauces, as well as coatings and meat products.

Also, there is an increasing demand from non-food industries for starch as a renewable material. Non-food applications of starch encompass pharmaceuticals, textiles, alcohol-based fuels, adhesives, dyes, and furniture.

Corn / Potato Starch Structure
The following table shows starch granule characters from different botanical sources
Plant Species Part of plant Shape of granules Approx. size of starch granule in µm
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Leaves Discoid 1 - 2
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Tubers Oval, spherical 10 - 75
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers Round, irregular 5 - 40
Maize / Corn (Zea mays) Grain Round, polygonal 5 - 20
Wheat (Triticum spp.) Grain Lenticular-shaped, small round 1.5 - 20
Rice (Oryza sativa) Grain Round, angular, and polygonal 3 - 10
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain Large disc-shaped granules, small spherical granules 1 - 24
Apple (Malus spp.) Fruit Spherical or dome-shaped 2 - 12
Banana (Musa spp.) Fruit Elongated ovals with ridges 14 - 108
Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Stem Oval with a temple bell-like shape 8 - 240